| 双语 长得帅才能挣得多?

作者:科大纵横 / 公众号:ustcplus 发布时间:2019-11-03


背景介绍:我们常说不能以貌取人,然而现实似乎给我们泼了一盆冷水。最新的研究发现,长相真的能影响一个人的职业前景和收入。
A new book reveals the excessive attention paid to how executives look一本新书揭示了人们对高管外貌的过度关注
Picture in your mind the typical chief executive. The chances are that you have thought of someone male, in a suit and distinguished-looking. In part, that is because most bosses look like that. It may also be because peopleinstinctivelydefer to such types.在你的脑海中描绘一个典型的首席执行官的形象吧。你很有可能想到了一位穿着西装、相貌出众的男性。这在一定程度上是因为大多数老板看上去确实是那样的。但也有可能是人们本能地认为老板就该是那样的。
In their book “Messengers: Who We Listen To, Who We Don’t And Why”, Stephen Martin and Joseph Marks, two psychologists, outline how people respond to visual status signals.心理学家斯蒂芬·马丁和约瑟夫·马克斯在他们所著的《信使:我们听谁的、不听谁的以及为什么这样?》一书中概述了人们对于视觉身份特质的反应。
Just why arepedestrianslikelier (three times as likely, according to one study) to defy traffic laws to follow a man across the road when he is wearing a suit than the same man dressed in denim? Similarly, motorists stuck at a traffic light are slower to honk their horn if the car in front has a prestige brand.比如,行人为什么更有可能跟着穿西装的人而非穿牛仔裤的人做出诸如横穿马路之类违反交通法规的事情(研究表明,前者是后者的三倍)。同样,困在红绿灯前的司机如果跟着的是一辆豪车,那么他按喇叭的频率都会降低。
One possibility is an evolved respect for those with a higher social position. This is not just about clothes or possessions. A further piece of research cited by the authors involved undergraduates who were shown photos of 50 chief executives from the Fortune 1000 list of big firms.一种可能是,人们更尊重那些拥有更高社会地位的人,而不仅仅在于穿着的好坏或财产的多寡。作者引用了另一项涉及大学生的研究,研究人员向这些大学生展示了《财富》美国1000强企业中的50位首席执行官的照片。
Half of these bosses were from the most profitable groups and half from the least profitable. The undergraduates were asked to judge, on looks alone, which executives had qualities such as competence and dominance. Remarkably, the students tended to pick out those executives who led the most successful companies.这些CEO有一半来自于榜首的公司,另一半来自于榜尾的公司。研究人员要求这些大学生仅凭相貌来判断哪些CEO更有胜任力和主导力等特质。值得注意的是,大学生们所挑选的往往是那些领导着最成功的公司的CEO。
It is hard todisentanglecause and effect. But it seems more probable that people with a certain type of appearance are likely to get promoted than it is to believe they areinnatelymore competent than everyone else.很难说清两者之间的因果关系。但是,相比那些相信自己天生就比他人更有能力的人来说,拥有某种外表的人似乎更有可能获得晋升。
Humans tend to respect men with particular physical characteristics. When participants in a study were shown pictures of male employees of a business consultancy, with similar clothes and masked faces, they perceived the taller men more positively in terms of team leadership skills. Indeed, research has shown that taller and more attractive men earn more than their shorter and plainer colleagues.人们倾向于尊重那些具有特殊体貌特征的男性。在一项研究中,研究人员向参与者展示了一家商业咨询公司的男性员工的照片(他们穿着相似、都戴着面具),结果参与者认为身材高大的员工更具团队领导力。研究发现,身材高大、相貌出众的男性比那些个头矮小、相貌平平的同事挣得更多。
Another business advantage for men turns out to be a face with a higher-than-average width-to-height-ratio. Research showed how square-jawed men negotiated higher signing-on bonuses for themselves than longer-faced, round-jawed peers.脸的宽高比高于平均水平则是男性的另一项商业优势。研究显示,方下巴的男性比长脸、圆下巴的男性能争取到更高的签约奖金。(红色标注词为重难点词汇)
重难点词汇:
instinctively[ɪnˈstɪŋktɪvli] adv. 本能地
pedestrian[pəˈdestriən] adj. 徒步的;缺乏想像力的 n. 行人;步行者
disentangle[ˌdɪsɪnˈtæŋɡl] vi. 解决;松开;解开纠结;解决 vt. 解开;松开;使解脱
innately[ɪˈneɪtli] adv. 天赋地;与生俱来的
(本文选自《经济学人》20190914期)科大纵横USTCPLUS
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